M. Živanić et al. Injectable Plasma-Treated Alginate Hydrogel for Oxidative Stress Delivery to Induce Immunogenic Cell Death in Osteosarcoma. Advanced Functional Materials

M. Živanić, A. Espona-Noguera, H. Verswyvel, E. Smits, A. Bogaerts, A. Lin, C. Canal. Injectable Plasma-Treated Alginate Hydrogel for Oxidative Stress Delivery to Induce Immunogenic Cell Death in Osteosarcoma. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2023, 2312005. OPEN ACCESS.

doi: doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202312005

Abstract

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a source of cell-damaging oxidant molecules that may be used as low-cost cancer treatment with minimal side effects. Liquids treated with cold plasma and enriched with oxidants are a modality for non-invasive treatment of internal tumors with cold plasma via injection. However, liquids are easily diluted with body fluids which impedes high and localized delivery of oxidants to the target. As an alternative, plasma-treated hydrogels (PTH) emerge as vehicles for the precise delivery of oxidants. This study reports an optimal protocol for the preparation of injectable alginate PTH that ensures the preservation of plasma-generated oxidants. The generation, storage, and release of oxidants from the PTH are assessed. The efficacy of the alginate PTH in cancer treatment is demonstrated in the context of cancer cell cytotoxicity and immunogenicity–release of danger signals and phagocytosis by immature dendritic cells, up to now unexplored for PTH. These are shown in osteosarcoma, a hard-to-treat cancer. The study aims to consolidate PTH as a novel cold plasma treatment modality for non-invasive or postoperative tumor treatment. The results offer a rationale for further exploration of alginate-based PTHs as a versatile platform in biomedical engineering.

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