Garcia-Albeniz-Influence-nanosecond-laser-surface-patterning-dental-3Y-TZP-Effects-topography-hydrothermal-degradation-cell-response-Dental-Materials

N. Garcia-de-Albeniz, M.-P. Ginebra, E. Jimenez-Piqué, J.J. Roa, C. Mas-Moruno. Influence of nanosecond laser surface patterning on dental 3Y-TZP: Effects on the topography, hydrothermal degradation and cell response. Dental Materials. 2023 Nov 9:S0109-5641(23)00438-4. OPEN ACCESS.

doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2023.10.026

Abstract

Objectives: Laser surface micropatterning of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) was explored with the objective of providing defined linear patterns capable of guiding bone-cell response.

Methods: A nanosecond (ns-) laser was employed to fabricate microgrooves on the surface of 3Y-TZP discs, yielding three different groove periodicities (i.e., 30, 50 and 100 µm). The resulting topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were employed to assess the hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified topographies. Preliminary biological studies were conducted to evaluate adhesion (6 h) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to the patterns in terms of cell number and morphology. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus adhesion (4 h) to the microgrooves was investigated.

Results: The surface analysis showed grooves of approximately 1.8 µm height that exhibited surface damage in the form of pile-up at the edge of the microgrooves, microcracks and cavities. Accelerated aging tests revealed a slight decrease of the hydrothermal degradation resistance after laser patterning, and the Raman mapping showed the presence of monoclinic phase heterogeneously distributed along the patterned surfaces. An increase of the hMSC area was identified on all the microgrooved surfaces, although only the 50 µm periodicity, which is closer to the cell size, significantly favored cell elongation and alignment along the grooves. A decrease in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was observed on the investigated micropatterns.

Significance: The study suggests that linear microgrooves of 50 µm periodicity may help in promoting hMSC adhesion and alignment, while reducing bacterial cell attachment.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Cell adhesion; Dental implants; Hydrothermal degradation; Laser patterning; Osseointegration; Surface topography; Zirconia.

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