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T. Martinez et al. a-tricalcium phosphate synthesis from amorphous calcium phosphate: structural characterization and hydraulic reactivity. J Mater Sci

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T. Martinez et al. a-tricalcium phosphate synthesis from amorphous calcium phosphate: structural characterization and hydraulic reactivity. J Mater Sci

T. Martinez, M. Español, C. Charvillat, O. Marsan, M.P. Ginebra, C. Rey, S. Sarda. a-tricalcium phosphate synthesis from amorphous calcium phosphate: structural characterization and hydraulic reactivity. J Mater Sci (2021) 56:13509–13523.

doi: doi.org/10.1007/s10853-021-06161-0

Abstract

In the present study, amorphous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has been synthetized by a wet route to obtain low temperature α-TCP at 650 °C (LT-αTCP) and compare its structural, physical–chemical and thermal properties with those of α-TCP obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method at 1400 °C (HT-αTCP). Even if no significant differences were observed concerning the values of lattice parameters measured by Rietveld refinement, LT-αTCP presented lower crystallinity and higher crystal strains than HT-αTCP. The reactivity in water of the α-TCP obtained by the two different routes was assessed. Both raw samples appeared relatively inert in solution and did not favour the nucleation of calcium deficient apatite (CDA); the LT-αTCP and HT-αTCP were converted into apatite only after milling. The mechanical process leads to a decrease in crystallinity and the formation of an amorphous phase, which is supported in this work by Raman spectroscopy. The faster rate of conversion of milled LT-αTCP compared to HT-αTCP can be assigned to its higher specific surface area, lower crystallinity and higher residual crystal strain; these favour the dissolution of the α-TCP phase. Finally, the setting properties of α-TCP-based bone cements were compared regarding their synthesis route. Although the synthesis route does not significantly affect the setting times, the kinetic of conversion into CDA was faster for LT-αTCP than for HT-αTCP. Thus, the modulation of the dissolution rate of α-TCP-based cement determined by the preparation route and the grinding process allows control of the overall setting reaction.

 

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