I. Lodoso et al. Calcium phosphate cements: Optimization toward biodegradability. Acta Biomaterialia

I. Lodoso-Torrecilla, J.J.J.P. van den Beucken, J.A. Jansen. Calcium phosphate cements: Optimization toward biodegradability. Acta Biomater. 2021 Jan 1;119:1-12.

doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2020.10.013


Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics represent the most widely used biomaterials for bone regenerative treatments due to their biological performance that is characterized by bioactivity and osteoconductive properties. From a clinical perspective, injectable CaP cements (CPCs) are highly appealing, as CPCs can be applied using minimally invasive surgery and can be molded to optimally fill irregular bone defects. Such CPCs are prepared from a powder and a liquid component, which upon mixing form a paste that can be injected into a bone defect and hardens in situ within an appropriate clinical time window. However, a major drawback of CPCs is their poor degradability. Ideally, CPCs should degrade at a suitable pace to allow for concomitant new bone to form. To overcome this shortcoming, control over CPC degradation has been explored using multiple approaches that introduce macroporosity within CPCs. This strategy enables faster degradation of CPC by increasing the surface area available to interact with the biological surroundings, leading to accelerated new bone formation. For a comprehensive overview of the path to degradable CPCs, this review presents the experimental procedures followed for their development with specific emphasis on (bio)material properties and biological performance in pre-clinical bone defect models.