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A. Barba et al. The impact of biomimicry in the design of osteoinductive bone substitutes: nanoscale matters. ACS Appl. Mater

A. Barba, A. Diez-Escudero, M. Espanol, M. Bonany, J.M. Sadowska, J. Guillem-Marti, C. Öhman-Mägi, C. Persson, M.C. Manzanares, J. Franch, M.P. Ginebra. The impact of biomimicry in the design of osteoinductive bone substitutes: nanoscale matters. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 8818−8830.

doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b20749

Abstract

Bone apatite consists of carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocrystals. Biomimetic routes allow fabricating synthetic bone grafts that mimic biological apatite. In this work, we explored the role of two distinctive features of biomimetic apatites, namely, nanocrystal morphology (plate vs needle-like crystals) and carbonate content, on the bone regeneration potential of CDHA scaffolds in an in vivo canine model. Both ectopic bone formation and scaffold degradation were drastically affected by the nanocrystal morphology after intramuscular implantation. Fine-CDHA foams with needle-like nanocrystals, comparable in size to bone mineral, showed a markedly higher osteoinductive potential and a superior degradation than chemically identical coarse-CDHA foams with larger plate-shaped crystals. These findings correlated well with the superior bone-healing capacity showed by the fine-CDHA scaffolds when implanted intraosseously. Moreover, carbonate doping of CDHA, which resulted in small plate-shaped nanocrystals, accelerated both the intrinsic osteoinduction and the bone healing capacity, and significantly increased the cell-mediated resorption. These results suggest that tuning the chemical composition and the nanostructural features may allow the material to enter the physiological bone remodeling cycle, promoting a tight synchronization between scaffold degradation and bone formation.t-like cells compared to control surfaces. At the same time, colonization by representative bacterial strains was significantly reduced on the surfaces. Furthermore, the biological potency of the multifunctional platform was verified in a co-culture in vitro model. Our findings demonstrate that this multifunctional approach can be useful to functionalize biomaterials to both improve cell integration and reduce the risk of bacterial infection.

Impact of Biomimicry in the Design of Osteoinductive Bone Substitutes: Nanoscale Matters

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